1. Applicability – If a suspected victim of maltreatment is under the age of 18, they are considered a minor and Sections 2 – 6 of this regulation should be followed. If a suspected victim of maltreatment is a student age 21 or younger and the suspected maltreatment occurred within the school, sections 2-6 of this regulation should be followed and the words “minor” and “child” shall encompass such students. If a suspected victim of maltreatment is 18 or older and otherwise meets the definition of a “vulnerable adult,” and the suspected maltreatment occurred outside of school, Sections 7 – 11 should be followed.
2. Responsibility for Reporting: Suspected Maltreatment of Minors – In accordance with Minnesota statutes and District Policy 506, Student Welfare, it is mandatory for school professionals and their delegates to report suspected maltreatment of minors (neglect, or physical or sexual abuse) to the proper authorities when the individual knows or has reason to believe a child is being or has within the past three years been neglected or abused (see section 4). When maltreatment may have occurred in a school facility, the parent, legal guardian, or custodian of the child should be informed. School professionals and their delegates are also required to report if they know or have reason to know of a kidnapping or depriving another of custodial or parental rights.
2.1 For the purpose of this regulation, minor means an individual under the age of 18. School professionals are defined as teachers, nurses, principals, district-level directors, the superintendent, School Board members, psychologists, counselors, coaches, social workers, administrators and anyone who provides direct or indirect educational or childcare services to students.
2.1.1 In case of suspected maltreatment outside the school setting, the proper authority to contact is Child Protection Intake of Dakota County Social Services and/or the local law enforcement agency. When a child is abandoned or in immediate danger, the local police department should be notified immediately.
2.1.2 In case of suspected maltreatment of a student in school, even when the child is age 18-21, the proper authority to contact is the Division of Compliance and Assistance of the Minnesota Department of Education (MDE). Child maltreatment reports to MDE are those reports that allege abuse or neglect of children by persons responsible for a child’s care in school as defined in Minnesota Statute 626.556, including, but not limited to, teachers, administrators, coaches, counselors, paraprofessionals and bus drivers.
3. Immunity and Liability Suspected Maltreatment of Minors
3.1 Any person who reports suspected maltreatment of a minor in good faith to the proper authorities immunity from any civil or criminal liability that otherwise might result by reason of his or her action and may not be retaliated against.
3.2 Any district professional who permits access by the local social services agency, law enforcement agency or the Minnesota Department of Education to the schools and who assists in good faith in an investigation (see section 5 below) has immunity from any civil or criminal liability that otherwise might result by reason of his or her action.
3.3 There may be legal consequences for the failure to make a report or for providing false information in a report.
3.3.1. A mandated reporter who fails to report may be guilty of a misdemeanor.
3.3.2. Any person who knowingly or recklessly makes a false report may be liable in a civil suit for actual and punitive damages, plus costs and reasonable attorney fees.
3.3.3 A mandated reporter who knows or has reason to believe that two or more children not related to the perpetrator have been physically or sexually abused by the same perpetrator within the preceding 10 years, and who fails to report may be guilty of a gross misdemeanor.
4. Definitions: Suspected Maltreatment of Minors
4.1 Sexual abuse means the subjection of a child, by a person responsible for the child's care, a person who has a significant relationship to the child as defined in state law or a person in a current or recent position of authority, to:
4.1.1 Any act which constitutes a violation of Minnesota Statutes 609.342 through 609.3451, (criminal sexual conduct in the first, second, third, fourth or fifth degree);
4.1.2 Any act which constitutes a violation of Minnesota Statutes 609.352 (solicitation of children to engage in sexual conduct; communication of sexually explicit materials to children);
4.1.3 Any act which involves a minor which constitutes a violation of Minnesota Statutes 609.321 through 609.324, (prostitution offenses) or 617.246, (use of minors in sexual performance), including child sex trafficking, or
4.1.4 Sexual abuse includes threatened sexual abuse.
4.2 Person responsible for a child’s care means:
4.2.1 An individual functioning within the family unit and having responsibilities for the care of the child such as a parent, guardian or other person having similar care responsibilities, or
4.2.2 An individual functioning outside the family unit and having responsibilities for the care of the child such as a teacher, school administrator or other lawful custodian of a child having either full-time or short-term care, responsibilities including, but not limited to, day care, babysitting (whether paid or unpaid), counseling, teaching and coaching.
4.3 Neglect means:
4.3.1 The failure by a person responsible for a child's care to supply a child with necessary food, clothing, shelter, health, medical or other care required for the child’s physical or mental health when reasonably able to do so;
4.3.2 Failure to protect a child from conditions or actions which imminently and seriously endanger the child's physical or mental health when reasonably able to do so;
4.3.3 Failure to provide for necessary supervision or child care arrangements appropriate for a child after considering factors such as the child’s age, mental ability, physical condition, length of absence or environment, when the child is unable to care for the child’s own basic needs or safety, or the basic needs or safety of another child in their care;
4.3.4 Failure to ensure that a child is educated in accordance with state law;
4.3.5 Prenatal exposure to a controlled substance, as defined in the law, used by the mother for a nonmedical purpose, as evidenced by withdrawal symptoms in the child at birth, results of a toxicology test performed on the mother at delivery or the child at birth, or medical effects or developmental delays during the child’s first year of life that medically indicate prenatal exposure to a controlled substance;
4.3.6 Medical neglect, which includes but is not limited to the withholding of medically indicated treatment from a disabled infant with a life-threatening condition;
4.3.7 Chronic and severe use of alcohol or a controlled substance by a parent or person responsible for the care of the child that adversely affects the child’s basic needs and safety, or
4.3.8 Emotional harm from a pattern of behavior that contributes to impaired emotional functioning of the child, which may be demonstrated by a substantial and observable effect in the child’s behavior, emotional response or cognition that is not within the normal range for the child’s age and stage of development, with due regard to the child’s culture.
4.3.9 Nothing in this section shall be construed to mean that a child is neglected solely because the child's parent, guardian or other person responsible for his or her care in good faith selects and depends upon spiritual means or prayer for treatment or care of disease or remedial care of the child in place of medical care; except that a parent, guardian or caretaker, or a person mandated to report has a duty to report if a lack of medical care may cause serious danger to the child’s health.
4.4 Physical abuse means:
4.4.1 Any physical injury, mental injury or threatened injury inflicted by a person responsible for the child's care on a child other than by accidental means, any physical injury that cannot reasonably be explained by the history of the injury, or any aversive and deprivation procedures that have not been authorized under the law regarding facilities for mental retardation and related condition.
4.4.2 Abuse does not include reasonable and moderate physical discipline of a child administered by a parent or legal guardian which does not result in injury. Actions which are not reasonable and moderate include, but are not limited to, any of the following that are done in anger or without regard to the safety to the child:
188.8.131.52 Throwing, kicking, burning, biting or cutting a child;
184.108.40.206 Striking a child with a closed fist;
220.127.116.11 Shaking a child under age three;
18.104.22.168 Striking or other actions that result in any non-accidental injury to a child under 18 months of age;
22.214.171.124 Unreasonable interference with a child’s breathing;
126.96.36.199 Threatening a child with a weapon, as defined in state law;
188.8.131.52 Striking a child under age one on the face or head;
184.108.40.206 Purposely giving a child poison, alcohol or dangerous, harmful or controlled substances that were not prescribed for the child by a practitioner, in order to control or punish the child; or other substances that substantially affect the child’s behavior, motor coordination or judgment, or that results in sickness or internal injury, or subjects the child to medical procedures that would be unnecessary if the child were not exposed to the substances, or
220.127.116.11 Unreasonable physical confinement or restraint not permitted by law, including but not limited to tying, caging or chaining.
4.5 Mental injury means an injury to the psychological capacity or emotional stability of a child as evidenced by an observable or substantial impairment in the child’s ability to function within a normal range of performance and behavior with due regard to the child’s culture.
4.6 Threatened injury means a statement, overt act, condition or status that represents a substantial risk of physical or sexual abuse or mental injury.
5. Reporting Process: Suspected Maltreatment of Minors – School personnel who know or have reason to believe a child is being neglected or physically or sexually abused, or has been neglected or physically or sexually abused in the preceding three years, or is the victim of kidnapping or deprivation of custodial or parental rights should report the situation to the principal of the school or, if applicable, the administrator of the program, in which the child is enrolled (“the relevant administrator”) and must call the proper authorities within 24 hours and make a written report within 72 hours (see section 4.6). The relevant administrator may assist with the fulfillment of all reporting obligations. Consulting with or reporting suspected maltreatment to a supervisor or administrator does not relieve a staff member of the obligation to report suspected maltreatment to appropriate authorities when warranted.
5.1 In the case of suspected neglect or physical or sexual abuse outside of school, the relevant administrator, school nurse and/or reporter may discuss the situation with the child or youth and emphasize that the school is not interested in accusing or punishing anyone, but rather is interested in helping ensure that the maltreatment does not continue.
5.2 In the case of suspected abuse or neglect occurring outside of school, the proper authority to contact is the Child Protection Intake of Dakota County Social Services and/or the local law enforcement agency.
5.3 In the case of suspected abuse or neglect occurring within the school to students through age 21, the proper authority to contact is the Division of Compliance and Assistance at the Minnesota Department of Education. Regardless of whether a report is made, as soon as practicable after a school receives information regarding an incident that may constitute maltreatment of a child in a school facility, the school shall inform the parent, legal guardian, or custodian of the child that an incident has occurred that may constitute maltreatment of the child, when the incident occurred and the nature of the conduct that may constitute maltreatment.
5.4 In case of suspected kidnapping or depriving another of custodial or parental rights, the proper authority to contact is the local police department or the county sheriff.
5.5 When a school employee knows or has reason to believe a child has died as a result of neglect or physical or sexual abuse, the employee shall report that information to the appropriate medical examiner or coroner instead of the local welfare agency, police department or county sheriff.
5.6 The school employee reporting the suspected neglect or abuse must follow the oral report with a written report. The report must be submitted to the proper authorities on Procedure 506.4.1P, Suspected Child Maltreatment Reporting Form – Dakota County or 506.4.2P, Maltreatment of Students Reporting Form – MDE, no more than 72 hours (exclusive of weekends and holidays) after the oral report.
The relevant administrator shall assist with the completion of the written report.
5.6.1 Procedure 506.4.1P, Suspected Child Maltreatment Reporting Form - Dakota County, should be FAXED or mailed to Dakota County Children and Family Intake, 14955 Galaxie Avenue, Apple Valley, MN 55124, FAX: 952-891-7192, phone 952-891-7549 OR to the local law enforcement agency. Copies should be forwarded to the school’s Confidential File, Suspected Maltreatment of a Minor.
5.6.2 Procedure 506.4.2P, Maltreatment of Students Reporting Form – MDE, should be forwarded to the Minnesota Department of Education, Student Maltreatment Program 1500 Highway 36 West, Roseville, MN 55113-4266, FAX: 651-797-1601, 24-hour reporting line: 651-582-8546, or email: firstname.lastname@example.org. Copies should be forwarded to the school’s Confidential File, Suspected Maltreatment of a Minor and to the Director of Human Resources.
6. Interview with Students and Employees by Agency Officials: Suspected
Maltreatment of Minors
6.1 Local Social Services and Law Enforcement Agencies – Each local social services and law enforcement agency has specific statutory authority to interview at school, without parental consent, the alleged victim and any other minors who currently reside with or who have resided with the alleged perpetrator.
6.1.1 When the local social services or law enforcement agency determines that an interview should take place on school property, written notification must be received by school officials before the interview.
18.104.22.168 Such notification shall include the name of the child to be interviewed, the purpose of the interview, and a reference to
the statutory authority to conduct an interview on school property.
22.214.171.124 If the interview is to be conducted by the local social services agency, the notification shall be signed by the Dakota County
Social Services director or his or her designee.
6.1.2 Except when the alleged offender is believed to be a school official or employee, the time, place and manner of the interview on school premises shall be within the discretion of the school administrator, but any such conditions must be reasonable and the interview must be conducted not more than 24 hours after receipt of the notification unless another time is agreed to between district officials and the local social services or law enforcement agency. The local welfare or law enforcement agency shall have the exclusive authority to determine who may attend the interview. Every effort shall be made to reduce disruption of the child's educational program, other students and school staff when an interview is conducted on school premises.
6.1.3 School officials may not disclose to the child's parent, legal custodian or guardian the contents of the interview notification or any other related information regarding the interview until notified in writing by the local social services or law enforcement agency that the investigation or assessment has been concluded.
6.2 Minnesota Department of Education – The Minnesota Department of Education, or a local welfare agency to which MDE has designated the authority to assess or investigate a report, has specific statutory authority to interview any children who are or have been in the care of a facility under investigation and their parents, guardians or legal custodians.
6.2.1 Prior to any interview, the commissioner of the agency shall notify the parent, guardian or legal custodian of a child who will be interviewed, as specified in state statute.
6.2.2 If reasonable efforts to reach the parent, guardian or legal custodian of a child in an out-of-home placement have failed, the child may be interviewed if there is reason to believe the interview is necessary to protect the child or other children in the facility. Information must then be provided by the agency to the parent, guardian or legal custodian as soon as possible after the interview.
6.2.3 MDE will contact school administrators before visiting a school, and will carry an identification card to show their affiliation with MDE.
6.3 Interviews with students during school hours by agency officials must follow these guidelines:
6.3.1 Investigating officers must remain in the administration office;
6.3.2 The educational program of the student must not be disrupted by calling him or her out of class or making him or her miss class, unless such an interruption is unavoidable;
6.3.3 The interview must be conducted in a private room or area where confidentiality can be maintained;
6.3.4 The local social services or law enforcement agency shall determine the people who may attend the interview, and
6.3.5 District personnel should take no action in the investigative process.
6.4 Interviews with district employees may take place at the request of the investigating agency.
6.4.1 A school employee is entitled to have his or her legal counsel present when meeting with a MDE investigator. The legal counsel must personally represent the employee. The school district’s attorney is not permitted to attend an investigative interview on behalf of a school employee.
6.4.2 The school district may in its sole discretion provide a personal attorney for the employee, so long as that attorney does not also represent the school district. The employee’s union may also provide a personal legal counsel to represent the employee in the interview. The union steward or similar union official does not have a right to be present because the MDE investigators are not representing the employer.
7. Responsibility for Reporting: Suspected Maltreatment of Vulnerable Adults – In accordance with Minnesota statutes and District Policy 506, Student Welfare, it is mandatory for school professionals (as defined in Section 2.1 of this Regulation) and their delegates to report suspected maltreatment of vulnerable adults (abuse, neglect or financial exploitation) to the proper authorities when the individual knows or has reason to believe that a vulnerable adult is being or has been maltreated, or has knowledge that a vulnerable adult has sustained a physical injury which is not reasonably explained.
8. Immunity and Liability: Suspected Maltreatment of Vulnerable Adults
8.1 Any person who reports suspected maltreatment of a vulnerable adult in good faith to the proper authorities has immunity from any civil or criminal liability that otherwise might result by reason of his or her action and may not be retaliated against.
8.2 Additionally, a person who knows or has reason to know a report has been made and who participates in good faith in an investigation of alleged maltreatment is immune from civil or criminal liability that otherwise might result from his or her action.
8.3 There may be legal consequences for the failure to make a report, or for providing false information or withholding material information in a report.
8.3.1 A mandated reporter who fails to report may be guilty of a misdemeanor. In addition, a mandated reporter who negligently or intentionally fails to report may be liable for any damages caused by the failure.
8.3.2 A mandated reporter who knowingly provides false, deceptive or misleading information, or who intentionally fails to provide all the material circumstances known to the reporter, may be guilty of a misdemeanor.
8.3.3 A mandated reporter who intentionally fails to report may be guilty of a gross misdemeanor if they knew maltreatment caused or contributed to the death or great bodily harm of a vulnerable adult, and the failure to report caused or contributed to the death or great bodily harm of a vulnerable adult or protects the mandated reporter's interests.
9. Definitions: Suspected Maltreatment of Vulnerable Adults
9.1 Abuse means:
9.1.1 An act against a vulnerable adult that constitutes a violation of, an attempt to violate, or aiding and abetting a violation of:
126.96.36.199 Assault in the first through fifth degrees as defined in Minnesota Statutes §§ 609.221 to 609.224;
188.8.131.52 The use of drugs to injure or facilitate crime as defined in Minnesota Statute § 609.235;
184.108.40.206 The solicitation, inducement, and promotion of prostitution as defined in Minnesota Statute § 609.322; and
220.127.116.11 Criminal sexual conduct in the first through fifth degrees as defined in Minnesota Statutes §§ 609.342 to 609.3451.
9.1.2 Conduct which is not an accident or therapeutic conduct as defined in Minnesota Statute § 626.5572, which produces or could reasonably be expected to produce physical pain or injury or emotional distress including, but not limited to, the following:
18.104.22.168 Hitting, slapping, kicking, pinching, biting, or corporal punishment of a vulnerable adult;
22.214.171.124 Use of repeated or malicious oral, written, or gestured language toward a vulnerable adult or the treatment of a vulnerable adult which would be considered by a reasonable person to be disparaging, derogatory, humiliating, harassing, or threatening;
126.96.36.199 Use of any aversive or deprivation procedure, unreasonable confinement, or involuntary seclusion, including the forced
separation of the vulnerable adult from other persons against the will of the vulnerable adult or the legal representative of the vulnerable adult; and
188.8.131.52 Use of any aversive or deprivation procedures for persons with developmental disabilities or related conditions not authorized under Minnesota Statute § 245.825.
9.1.3 Any sexual contact or penetration as defined in Minnesota Statute § 609.341, between a facility staff person or a person providing services in the facility and a resident, patient, or client of that facility.
9.1.4 The act of forcing, compelling, coercing, or enticing a vulnerable adult against the vulnerable adult's will to perform services for the advantage of another.
9.2 Caregiver means an individual or facility who has responsibility for the care of a vulnerable adult as a result of a family relationship, or who has assumed responsibility for all or a portion of the care of a vulnerable adult voluntarily, by contract, or by agreement.
9.3 Financial exploitation means:
9.3.1 In breach of a fiduciary obligation recognized elsewhere in law, including pertinent regulations, contractual obligations, documented consent by a competent person, or the obligations of a responsible party under Minnesota Statute § 144.6501, a person:
184.108.40.206 Engages in unauthorized expenditure of funds entrusted to the actor by the vulnerable adult which results or is likely to result in detriment to the vulnerable adult; or
220.127.116.11 Fails to use the financial resources of the vulnerable adult to provide food, clothing, shelter, health care, therapeutic conduct or supervision for the vulnerable adult, and the failure results or is likely to result in detriment to the vulnerable adult.
9.3.2 In the absence of legal authority a person:
18.104.22.168 Willfully uses, withholds, or disposes of funds or property of a vulnerable adult;
22.214.171.124 Obtains for the actor or another the performance of services by a third person for the wrongful profit or advantage of the actor or another to the detriment of the vulnerable adult;
126.96.36.199 Acquires possession or control of, or an interest in, funds or property of a vulnerable adult through the use of undue influence, harassment, duress, deception, or fraud; or
188.8.131.52 Forces, compels, coerces, or entices a vulnerable adult against the vulnerable adult's will to perform services for the profit or advantage of another.
9.4 Immediately means as soon as possible, but no longer than 24 hours from the time initial knowledge that the incident occurred has been received.
9.5 Maltreatment means abuse, neglect, or financial exploitation.
9.6 Neglect means:
9.6.1 The failure or omission by a caregiver to supply a vulnerable adult with care or services, including but not limited to, food, clothing, shelter, health care, or supervision which is:
184.108.40.206 Reasonable and necessary to obtain or maintain the vulnerable adult's physical or mental health or safety, considering the
physical and mental capacity or dysfunction of the vulnerable adult; and which is not the result of an accident or therapeutic
9.6.2 The absence or likelihood of absence of care or services, including but not limited to, food, clothing, shelter, health care, or supervision necessary to maintain the physical and mental health of the vulnerable adult which a reasonable person would deem essential to obtain or maintain the vulnerable adult's health, safety, or comfort considering the physical or mental capacity or dysfunction of the vulnerable adult.
9.7 Report means a statement concerning all the circumstances surrounding the alleged or suspected maltreatment, as defined in this section, of a vulnerable adult which are known to the reporter at the time the statement is made.
9.8 Vulnerable adult means any person 18 years of age or older who:
220.127.116.11 Is a resident or inpatient of a “facility,” as that word is defined in Minnesota Statute § 626.5572;
18.104.22.168 Receives services required to be licensed under Minnesota Chapter 245A, except that a person receiving outpatient services for treatment of chemical dependency or mental illness, or one who is served in the Minnesota sex offender program on a court-hold order for commitment, or is committed as a sexual psychopathic personality or as a sexually dangerous person under Minnesota Chapter 253B, is not considered a vulnerable adult unless the person meets the requirements of Section 22.214.171.124;
126.96.36.199 Receives services from a home care provider required to be licensed under Minnesota Statutes §§ 144A.43 to 144A.482; or
from a person or organization that offers, provides, or arranges for personal care assistance services under the medical assistance program as authorized under Minnesota Statutes §§ 256B.0625, subdivision19a, 256B.0651, 256B.0653, 256B.0654, 256B.0659, or 256B.85; or
188.8.131.52 Regardless of residence or whether any type of service is received, possesses a physical or mental infirmity or other physical, mental, or emotional dysfunction that impairs the individual's ability to provide adequately for the individual's own care without assistance, including the provision of food, shelter, clothing, health care, or supervision; and because of the dysfunction or
infirmity and the need for care or services, the individual has an impaired ability to protect the individual's self from maltreatment.
10. Reporting Process: Suspected Maltreatment of Vulnerable Adults - School personnel who have reason to believe that a vulnerable adult is being or has been maltreated, or who have knowledge that a vulnerable adult has sustained a physical injury which is not reasonably explained shall report the situation to the principal of the school or, if applicable, the administrator of the program, in which the vulnerable adult is enrolled (the “relevant administrator”) and must call the Minnesota Adult Abuse Reporting Center at 1-844-880-1574 within 24 hours. Law enforcement should be contacted immediately in the event of an emergency.
10.1 The relevant administrator may assist with the fulfillment of all reporting obligations. Consulting with or reporting suspected maltreatment to a supervisor or administrator does not relieve a staff member of the obligation to report suspected maltreatment to appropriate authorities when warranted.
10.2 To the extent possible, the report must be of sufficient content to identify the vulnerable adult, the caregiver, the nature and extent of the suspected maltreatment, any evidence of previous maltreatment, the name and address of the reporter, the time, date, and location of the incident, and any other information that the reporter believes might be helpful in investigating the suspected maltreatment.
11. Interviews with Students and Employees by Agency Officials: Suspected
Maltreatment of Vulnerable Adults
11.1 If the agency investigating suspected maltreatment determines that an interview should take place on school property, written notification must be received by school officials before the interview. The notification shall name the person to be interviewed, the purpose of the interview and reference the legal authority to conduct an interview on school property.
11.2 Information about the investigation shall not be disclosed by staff except as permitted by law.
11.3 The time, place and manner of an interview on school premises shall be within the discretion of school administration, but any such conditions must be reasonable. When an interview is conducted on school premises, every effort shall be made to reduce disruption to the student’s educational program, other students and school staff.
11.4 The interview guidelines set forth in Sections 6.3 and 6.4 shall apply to interviews conducted for the purposes of investigating suspected maltreatment of a vulnerable adult.
- Minnesota Statute 245.825, Adversive and Deprivation Procedures; Licensed Facilities and Services
- Minnesota Statute 518B.01, Domestic Abuse Act
- Minnesota Statute 609.342 through 609.3451, Criminal sexual conduct in the first, second, third, fourth or fifth degree
- Minnesota Statute 609.02, Criminal Code, Definitions
- Minnesota Statute 609.2242, Domestic assault
- Minnesota Statute 609.234, Failure to Report
- Minnesota Statute 609.25, Kidnapping
- Minnesota Statute 609.26, Depriving another of custodial or parental rights
- Minnesota Statute 609.321 through 609.324, Prostitution offenses
- Minnesota Statute 609.379, Permitted actions
- Minnesota Statute 617.246, Use of minors in sexual performance prohibited
- Minnesota Statute 626.556, Reporting of maltreatment of minors
- Minnesota Statute 626.557, Reporting of maltreatment of vulnerable adults
- Minnesota Statute 626.5572, Definitions
- “Further Information On Child Abuse Reporting Requirements,” memo from Cindy Lavorato, Assistant Commissioner, and Thomas J. Lombard, manager, Monitoring and Compliance, Department of Children, Families and Learning, November 29, 1999
- "Changes to the Maltreatment of Minors Reporting Act, Minnesota Statutes 626.556," memo from Barbara Johndahl, program supervisor, Department of Children, Families and Learning, November 29, 2000
- Changes to the Maltreatment of Minors Reporting Act and The Minnesota Government Data Practices Act,” memo from Barbara Jondahl, Program Supervisor, Maltreatment of Minors Program, and Tammy L. Pust, Assistant Commissioner, Office of Public Affairs and Policy Development, Minnesota Department of Children, Families & Learning, September 5, 2002